Special Reports

Greek Alphabet in Unicode

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC.[3][4] It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet,[5] and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many different local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Euclidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today. These twenty-four letters (each in uppercase and lowercase forms) are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω.

The Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts.[6] Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between uppercase and lowercase in parallel with Latin during the modern era. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the fifth century BC and today. Modern and Ancient Greek also use different diacritics. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.

Unicode supports polytonic orthography well enough for ordinary continuous text in modern and ancient Greek, and even many archaic forms for epigraphy. With the use of combining characters, Unicode also supports Greek philology and dialectology and various other specialized requirements. Most current text rendering engines do not render diacritics well, so, though alpha with macron and acute can be represented as U+03B1 U+0304 U+0301, this rarely renders well: ᾱ́.[citation needed]

There are two main blocks of Greek characters in Unicode. The first is “Greek and Coptic” (U+0370 to U+03FF). This block is based on ISO 8859-7 and is sufficient to write Modern Greek. There are also some archaic letters and Greek-based technical symbols.

This block also supports the Coptic alphabet. Formerly, most Coptic letters shared codepoints with similar-looking Greek letters; but in many scholarly works, both scripts occur, with quite different letter shapes, so as of Unicode 4.1, Coptic and Greek were disunified. Those Coptic letters with no Greek equivalents still remain in this block (U+03E2 to U+03EF).

To write polytonic Greek, one may use combining diacritical marks or the precomposed characters in the “Greek Extended” block (U+1F00 to U+1FFF).

Greek and Coptic[1][2]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)


0123456789ABCDEF
U+037xͰͱͲͳʹ͵Ͷͷ



ͺͻͼͽ;Ϳ
U+038x







΄΅Ά·ΈΉΊ

Ό

ΎΏ
U+039xΐΑΒΓΔΕΖΗΘΙΚΛΜΝΞΟ
U+03AxΠΡ

ΣΤΥΦΧΨΩΪΫάέήί
U+03Bxΰαβγδεζηθικλμνξο
U+03CxπρςστυφχψωϊϋόύώϏ
U+03DxϐϑϒϓϔϕϖϗϘϙϚϛϜϝϞϟ
U+03ExϠϡϢϣϤϥϦϧϨϩϪϫϬϭϮϯ
U+03Fxϰϱϲϳϴϵ϶ϷϸϹϺϻϼϽϾϿ
Notes1.^ As of Unicode version 13.02.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
Greek Extended[1][2]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)


0123456789ABCDEF
U+1F0x
U+1F1x







U+1F2x
U+1F3xἿ
U+1F4x







U+1F5x







U+1F6x
U+1F7x



U+1F8x
U+1F9x
U+1FAx
U+1FBx

᾿
U+1FCx

U+1FDx





U+1FEx
U+1FFx







Notes1.^ As of Unicode version 13.02.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Combining and letter-free diacritics

Combining and spacing (letter-free) diacritical marks pertaining to Greek language:

CombiningSpacingSampleDescription
U+0300U+0060( ̀)“varia / grave accent
U+0301U+00B4, U+0384( ́)“oxia / tonos / acute accent
U+0304U+00AF( ̄)macron
U+0306U+02D8( ̆)“vrachy / breve
U+0308U+00A8( ̈)“dialytika / diaeresis
U+0313U+02BC( ̓)“psili / comma above” (spiritus lenis)
U+0314U+02BD( ̔)“dasia / reversed comma above” (spiritus asper)
U+0342

( ͂)“perispomeni” (circumflex)
U+0343

( ̓)koronis” (= U+0313)
U+0344U+0385( ̈́)“dialytika tonos” (deprecated, = U+0308 U+0301)
U+0345U+037A( ͅ)“ypogegrammeni / iota subscript”.

Encodings with a subset of the Greek alphabet

IBM code pages 437, 860, 861, 862, 863, and 865 contain the letters ΓΘΣΦΩαδεπστφ (plus β as an alternative interpretation for ß).

A number of Greek letters, variants, digits, and other symbols are supported by the Unicode character encoding standard.

The following is a Unicode collation algorithm list of Greek characters and those Greek-derived characters that are sorted alongside them.[2][3][4]

Most of the characters of the blocks listed above are included, except for the Ancient Greek Numbers, Ancient Symbols and Ancient Greek Musical Notation. In addition, the collation charts include Greek-derived characters from the following blocks:

Other Greek-derived characters are excluded from the collation charts, such as U+A7B5 LATIN SMALL LETTER BETA and Coptic letters.

α(U+03B1)�(U+1D6C2)�(U+1D6FC)�(U+1D736)�(U+1D770)�(U+1D7AA)
Α(U+0391)�(U+1D6A8)�(U+1D6E2)�(U+1D71C)�(U+1D756)�(U+1D790)
ἀ(U+1F00)Ἀ(U+1F08)ἄ(U+1F04)Ἄ(U+1F0C)ᾄ(U+1F84)ᾌ(U+1F8C)
ἂ(U+1F02)Ἂ(U+1F0A)ᾂ(U+1F82)ᾊ(U+1F8A)ἆ(U+1F06)Ἆ(U+1F0E)
ᾆ(U+1F86)ᾎ(U+1F8E)ᾀ(U+1F80)ᾈ(U+1F88)ἁ(U+1F01)Ἁ(U+1F09)
ἅ(U+1F05)Ἅ(U+1F0D)ᾅ(U+1F85)ᾍ(U+1F8D)ἃ(U+1F03)Ἃ(U+1F0B)
ᾃ(U+1F83)ᾋ(U+1F8B)ἇ(U+1F07)Ἇ(U+1F0F)ᾇ(U+1F87)ᾏ(U+1F8F)
ᾁ(U+1F81)ᾉ(U+1F89)ά(U+03AC)ά(U+1F71)Ά(U+0386)Ά(U+1FBB)
ᾴ(U+1FB4)ὰ(U+1F70)Ὰ(U+1FBA)ᾲ(U+1FB2)ᾰ(U+1FB0)Ᾰ(U+1FB8)
ᾶ(U+1FB6)ᾷ(U+1FB7)ᾱ(U+1FB1)Ᾱ(U+1FB9)ᾳ(U+1FB3)ᾼ(U+1FBC)
β(U+03B2)�(U+1D6C3)�(U+1D6FD)�(U+1D737)�(U+1D771)�(U+1D7AB)
Β(U+0392)�(U+1D6A9)�(U+1D6E3)�(U+1D71D)�(U+1D757)�(U+1D791)
ᵝ(U+1D5D)ᵦ(U+1D66)ϐ(U+03D0)
γ(U+03B3)�(U+1D6C4)�(U+1D6FE)�(U+1D738)�(U+1D772)�(U+1D7AC)
Γ(U+0393)�(U+1D6AA)�(U+1D6E4)�(U+1D71E)�(U+1D758)�(U+1D792)
ℽ(U+213D)ℾ(U+213E)ᵞ(U+1D5E)ᵧ(U+1D67)ᴦ(U+1D26)
δ(U+03B4)�(U+1D6C5)�(U+1D6FF)�(U+1D739)�(U+1D773)�(U+1D7AD)
Δ(U+0394)�(U+1D6AB)�(U+1D6E5)�(U+1D71F)�(U+1D759)�(U+1D793)
ᵟ(U+1D5F)
ε(U+03B5)ϵ(U+03F5)�(U+1D6C6)�(U+1D6DC)�(U+1D700)�(U+1D716)
�(U+1D73A)�(U+1D750)�(U+1D774)�(U+1D78A)�(U+1D7AE)�(U+1D7C4)
Ε(U+0395)�(U+1D6AC)�(U+1D6E6)�(U+1D720)�(U+1D75A)�(U+1D794)
ἐ(U+1F10)Ἐ(U+1F18)ἔ(U+1F14)Ἔ(U+1F1C)ἒ(U+1F12)Ἒ(U+1F1A)
ἑ(U+1F11)Ἑ(U+1F19)ἕ(U+1F15)Ἕ(U+1F1D)ἓ(U+1F13)Ἓ(U+1F1B)
έ(U+03AD)έ(U+1F73)Έ(U+0388)Έ(U+1FC9)ὲ(U+1F72)Ὲ(U+1FC8)
ϝ(U+03DD)�(U+1D7CB)Ϝ(U+03DC)�(U+1D7CA)
ͷ(U+0377)Ͷ(U+0376)
ϛ(U+03DB)Ϛ(U+03DA)
ζ(U+03B6)�(U+1D6C7)�(U+1D701)�(U+1D73B)�(U+1D775)�(U+1D7AF)
Ζ(U+0396)�(U+1D6AD)�(U+1D6E7)�(U+1D721)�(U+1D75B)�(U+1D795)
ͱ(U+0371)Ͱ(U+0370)
η(U+03B7)�(U+1D6C8)�(U+1D702)�(U+1D73C)�(U+1D776)�(U+1D7B0)
Η(U+0397)�(U+1D6AE)�(U+1D6E8)�(U+1D722)�(U+1D75C)�(U+1D796)
ἠ(U+1F20)Ἠ(U+1F28)ἤ(U+1F24)Ἤ(U+1F2C)ᾔ(U+1F94)ᾜ(U+1F9C)
ἢ(U+1F22)Ἢ(U+1F2A)ᾒ(U+1F92)ᾚ(U+1F9A)ἦ(U+1F26)Ἦ(U+1F2E)
ᾖ(U+1F96)ᾞ(U+1F9E)ᾐ(U+1F90)ᾘ(U+1F98)ἡ(U+1F21)Ἡ(U+1F29)
ἥ(U+1F25)Ἥ(U+1F2D)ᾕ(U+1F95)ᾝ(U+1F9D)ἣ(U+1F23)Ἣ(U+1F2B)
ᾓ(U+1F93)ᾛ(U+1F9B)ἧ(U+1F27)Ἧ(U+1F2F)ᾗ(U+1F97)ᾟ(U+1F9F)
ᾑ(U+1F91)ᾙ(U+1F99)ή(U+03AE)ή(U+1F75)Ή(U+0389)Ή(U+1FCB)
ῄ(U+1FC4)ὴ(U+1F74)Ὴ(U+1FCA)ῂ(U+1FC2)ῆ(U+1FC6)ῇ(U+1FC7)
ῃ(U+1FC3)ῌ(U+1FCC)
θ(U+03B8)ϑ(U+03D1)�(U+1D6C9)�(U+1D6DD)�(U+1D703)�(U+1D717)
�(U+1D73D)�(U+1D751)�(U+1D777)�(U+1D78B)�(U+1D7B1)�(U+1D7C5)
Θ(U+0398)ϴ(U+03F4)�(U+1D6AF)�(U+1D6B9)�(U+1D6E9)�(U+1D6F3)
�(U+1D723)�(U+1D72D)�(U+1D75D)�(U+1D767)�(U+1D797)�(U+1D7A1)
ᶿ(U+1DBF)
ι(U+03B9)�(U+1D6CA)�(U+1D704)�(U+1D73E)�(U+1D778)�(U+1D7B2)
Ι(U+0399)�(U+1D6B0)�(U+1D6EA)�(U+1D724)�(U+1D75E)�(U+1D798)
ἰ(U+1F30)Ἰ(U+1F38)ἴ(U+1F34)Ἴ(U+1F3C)ἲ(U+1F32)Ἲ(U+1F3A)
ἶ(U+1F36)Ἶ(U+1F3E)ἱ(U+1F31)Ἱ(U+1F39)ἵ(U+1F35)Ἵ(U+1F3D)
ἳ(U+1F33)Ἳ(U+1F3B)ἷ(U+1F37)Ἷ(U+1F3F)ί(U+03AF)ί(U+1F77)
Ί(U+038A)Ί(U+1FDB)ὶ(U+1F76)Ὶ(U+1FDA)ῐ(U+1FD0)Ῐ(U+1FD8)
ῖ(U+1FD6)ϊ(U+03CA)Ϊ(U+03AA)ΐ(U+0390)ΐ(U+1FD3)ῒ(U+1FD2)
ῗ(U+1FD7)ῑ(U+1FD1)Ῑ(U+1FD9)ι(U+1FBE)ͺ(U+037A)
ϳ(U+03F3)Ϳ(U+037F)
κ(U+03BA)ϰ(U+03F0)�(U+1D6CB)�(U+1D6DE)�(U+1D705)�(U+1D718)
�(U+1D73F)�(U+1D752)�(U+1D779)�(U+1D78C)�(U+1D7B3)�(U+1D7C6)
Κ(U+039A)�(U+1D6B1)�(U+1D6EB)�(U+1D725)�(U+1D75F)�(U+1D799)
ϗ(U+03D7)Ϗ(U+03CF)
λ(U+03BB)�(U+1D6CC)�(U+1D706)�(U+1D740)�(U+1D77A)�(U+1D7B4)
Λ(U+039B)�(U+1D6B2)�(U+1D6EC)�(U+1D726)�(U+1D760)�(U+1D79A)
ᴧ(U+1D27)
μ(U+03BC)�(U+1D6CD)�(U+1D707)�(U+1D741)�(U+1D77B)�(U+1D7B5)
Μ(U+039C)�(U+1D6B3)�(U+1D6ED)�(U+1D727)�(U+1D761)�(U+1D79B)
µ(U+00B5)㎂(U+3382)㎌(U+338C)㎍(U+338D)㎕(U+3395)㎛(U+339B)
㎲(U+33B2)㎶(U+33B6)㎼(U+33BC)
ν(U+03BD)�(U+1D6CE)�(U+1D708)�(U+1D742)�(U+1D77C)�(U+1D7B6)
Ν(U+039D)�(U+1D6B4)�(U+1D6EE)�(U+1D728)�(U+1D762)�(U+1D79C)
ξ(U+03BE)�(U+1D6CF)�(U+1D709)�(U+1D743)�(U+1D77D)�(U+1D7B7)
Ξ(U+039E)�(U+1D6B5)�(U+1D6EF)�(U+1D729)�(U+1D763)�(U+1D79D)
ο(U+03BF)�(U+1D6D0)�(U+1D70A)�(U+1D744)�(U+1D77E)�(U+1D7B8)
Ο(U+039F)�(U+1D6B6)�(U+1D6F0)�(U+1D72A)�(U+1D764)�(U+1D79E)
ὀ(U+1F40)Ὀ(U+1F48)ὄ(U+1F44)Ὄ(U+1F4C)ὂ(U+1F42)Ὂ(U+1F4A)
ὁ(U+1F41)Ὁ(U+1F49)ὅ(U+1F45)Ὅ(U+1F4D)ὃ(U+1F43)Ὃ(U+1F4B)
ό(U+03CC)ό(U+1F79)Ό(U+038C)Ό(U+1FF9)ὸ(U+1F78)Ὸ(U+1FF8)
π(U+03C0)ϖ(U+03D6)�(U+1D6D1)�(U+1D6E1)�(U+1D70B)�(U+1D71B)
�(U+1D745)�(U+1D755)�(U+1D77F)�(U+1D78F)�(U+1D7B9)�(U+1D7C9)
Π(U+03A0)�(U+1D6B7)�(U+1D6F1)�(U+1D72B)�(U+1D765)�(U+1D79F)
ℼ(U+213C)ℿ(U+213F)ᴨ(U+1D28)
ϻ(U+03FB)Ϻ(U+03FA)
ϟ(U+03DF)Ϟ(U+03DE)
ϙ(U+03D9)Ϙ(U+03D8)
ρ(U+03C1)ϱ(U+03F1)�(U+1D6D2)�(U+1D6E0)�(U+1D70C)�(U+1D71A)
�(U+1D746)�(U+1D754)�(U+1D780)�(U+1D78E)�(U+1D7BA)�(U+1D7C8)
Ρ(U+03A1)�(U+1D6B8)�(U+1D6F2)�(U+1D72C)�(U+1D766)�(U+1D7A0)
ᵨ(U+1D68)ῤ(U+1FE4)ῥ(U+1FE5)Ῥ(U+1FEC)ᴩ(U+1D29)ϼ(U+03FC)
σ(U+03C3)ς(U+03C2)�(U+1D6D3)�(U+1D6D4)�(U+1D70D)�(U+1D70E)
�(U+1D747)�(U+1D748)�(U+1D781)�(U+1D782)�(U+1D7BB)�(U+1D7BC)
Σ(U+03A3)�(U+1D6BA)�(U+1D6F4)�(U+1D72E)�(U+1D768)�(U+1D7A2)
ϲ(U+03F2)Ϲ(U+03F9)
ͼ(U+037C)Ͼ(U+03FE)ͻ(U+037B)Ͻ(U+03FD)ͽ(U+037D)Ͽ(U+03FF)
τ(U+03C4)�(U+1D6D5)�(U+1D70F)�(U+1D749)�(U+1D783)�(U+1D7BD)
Τ(U+03A4)�(U+1D6BB)�(U+1D6F5)�(U+1D72F)�(U+1D769)�(U+1D7A3)
υ(U+03C5)�(U+1D6D6)�(U+1D710)�(U+1D74A)�(U+1D784)�(U+1D7BE)
Υ(U+03A5)ϒ(U+03D2)�(U+1D6BC)�(U+1D6F6)�(U+1D730)�(U+1D76A)
�(U+1D7A4)ὐ(U+1F50)ὔ(U+1F54)ὒ(U+1F52)ὖ(U+1F56)ὑ(U+1F51)
Ὑ(U+1F59)ὕ(U+1F55)Ὕ(U+1F5D)ὓ(U+1F53)Ὓ(U+1F5B)ὗ(U+1F57)
Ὗ(U+1F5F)ύ(U+03CD)ύ(U+1F7B)Ύ(U+038E)Ύ(U+1FEB)ϓ(U+03D3)
ὺ(U+1F7A)Ὺ(U+1FEA)ῠ(U+1FE0)Ῠ(U+1FE8)ῦ(U+1FE6)ϋ(U+03CB)
Ϋ(U+03AB)ϔ(U+03D4)ΰ(U+03B0)ΰ(U+1FE3)ῢ(U+1FE2)ῧ(U+1FE7)
ῡ(U+1FE1)Ῡ(U+1FE9)
φ(U+03C6)ϕ(U+03D5)�(U+1D6D7)�(U+1D6DF)�(U+1D711)�(U+1D719)
�(U+1D74B)�(U+1D753)�(U+1D785)�(U+1D78D)�(U+1D7BF)�(U+1D7C7)
Φ(U+03A6)�(U+1D6BD)�(U+1D6F7)�(U+1D731)�(U+1D76B)�(U+1D7A5)
ᵠ(U+1D60)ᵩ(U+1D69)
χ(U+03C7)�(U+1D6D8)�(U+1D712)�(U+1D74C)�(U+1D786)�(U+1D7C0)
Χ(U+03A7)�(U+1D6BE)�(U+1D6F8)�(U+1D732)�(U+1D76C)�(U+1D7A6)
ᵡ(U+1D61)ᵪ(U+1D6A)
ψ(U+03C8)�(U+1D6D9)�(U+1D713)�(U+1D74D)�(U+1D787)�(U+1D7C1)
Ψ(U+03A8)�(U+1D6BF)�(U+1D6F9)�(U+1D733)�(U+1D76D)�(U+1D7A7)
ᴪ(U+1D2A)
ω(U+03C9)�(U+1D6DA)�(U+1D714)�(U+1D74E)�(U+1D788)�(U+1D7C2)
Ω(U+03A9)�(U+1D6C0)�(U+1D6FA)�(U+1D734)�(U+1D76E)�(U+1D7A8)
ὠ(U+1F60)Ὠ(U+1F68)ὤ(U+1F64)Ὤ(U+1F6C)ᾤ(U+1FA4)ᾬ(U+1FAC)
ὢ(U+1F62)Ὢ(U+1F6A)ᾢ(U+1FA2)ᾪ(U+1FAA)ὦ(U+1F66)Ὦ(U+1F6E)
ᾦ(U+1FA6)ᾮ(U+1FAE)ᾠ(U+1FA0)ᾨ(U+1FA8)ὡ(U+1F61)Ὡ(U+1F69)
ὥ(U+1F65)Ὥ(U+1F6D)ᾥ(U+1FA5)ᾭ(U+1FAD)ὣ(U+1F63)Ὣ(U+1F6B)
ᾣ(U+1FA3)ᾫ(U+1FAB)ὧ(U+1F67)Ὧ(U+1F6F)ᾧ(U+1FA7)ᾯ(U+1FAF)
ᾡ(U+1FA1)ᾩ(U+1FA9)ώ(U+03CE)ώ(U+1F7D)Ώ(U+038F)Ώ(U+1FFB)
ῴ(U+1FF4)ὼ(U+1F7C)Ὼ(U+1FFA)ῲ(U+1FF2)ῶ(U+1FF6)ῷ(U+1FF7)
ῳ(U+1FF3)ῼ(U+1FFC)ꭥ(U+AB65)Ω(U+2126)㏀(U+33C0)㏁(U+33C1)
ϡ(U+03E1)Ϡ(U+03E0)
ͳ(U+0373)Ͳ(U+0372)
ϸ(U+03F8)Ϸ(U+03F7)
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